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Cubism was a 20th century avant-garde art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. The first branch of cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1908 and 1911 in France. In its second phase, Synthetic Cubism, (using synthetic materials in the art) the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity. 

English art historian Douglas Cooper describes three phases of Cubism in his seminal book The Cubist Epoch. According to Cooper there was Early Cubism, (from 1906-1908) during which time the movement was initially developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque; the second phase being called High Cubism, (from 1909 to 1914) during which time Juan Gris emerged as an important exponent; and finally Cooper referred to Late Cubism (from 1914 to 1921) as the last phase of Cubism as a radical avant-garde movement. 

Pablo Picasso 1962 
Birth name - Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula, Juan Nepomuceno María de los, Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima, Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso.
Born -  October 25, 1881 Málaga, Spain. Died 8 April 1973 (aged 91) Mougins, France. 
Nationality - Spanish.
Field - painting, drawing, sculpture, printmaking, ceramics. 
Training - Jose Ruíz (father), Academy of Arts, Madrid.
Works - "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" (1907), "Guernica" (1937), "The Weeping Woman" (1937). 

Georges Braque (May 13, 1882 – August 31, 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art movement known as cubism.

Pablo Picasso

Georges Braque

Georges Braque "Woman with a guitar", 1913

Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910

Violin and Candlestick, Paris, spring 1910, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art


Picasso sculpture in Chicago

P. Picasso "Dora Maar au Chat", 1941

Juan Gris

Assem blage Picasso

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